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Glossary of Terms - Water Treatment

Acidity

The capacity of water to neutralize bases, a property dependent on the water’s content of hydrogen ions and other acid forming species.

 

Alkalinity

The capacity of water to neutralize acids, a property dependent on the water's content of carbonates, bicarbonates, hydroxides and other base-forming species. It is expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent calcium carbonate.

 

Blanket Floc

The capacity of lime sludges to adhere to one another during settling, causing precipitates to sorb to suspended particles which effectively clarifies water and waste water. Blanket Floc also causes lime sludges to compact during settling, forcing water out of the floc for easy dewatering.

 

Hardness

The polyvalent-cation concentration of water (generally calcium and magnesium).

 

pH

The logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity in aqueous solutions. A measure of the strength or intensity of a water's acidity or alkalinity. Water with a pH of 7.0 is neutral. A pH less than 7.0 indicates an acidic water, while a pH greater than 7.0 indicates an alkaline water.

 

Sludge

Any solid or semisolid or liquid waste generated from a municipal, or industrial wastewater treatment plant, industrial process or any other such waste having similar characteristics and effect.

 

Slurry

A mixture of water and any finely divided insoluble material (slaked lime, etc.) in suspension.

 

Turbidity

Reduction of transparency of a sample due to the presence of particulate matter.

 

Waste Water

Water discharged from a process as a result of its formation or use in that process.

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