Although you would not be wrong to label Carmeuse Lime & Stone as a supplier of reagents for the utility industry, a more accurate statement is that Carmeuse goes far beyond being a mere supplier. Our focus has always been on the customer application of our products; long before we ventured into the reagent supply side of the business in 1974, the Carmeuse Technology Center focused on developing patented processes for applying those reagents.
Today Carmeuse provides solutions for your compliance needs including:
- Solutions for wastewater treatment
- MATS compliance
- Technology center services for FGT
SOLUTIONS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
In July of 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), proposed a “Steam Electric Power Generating Point Source Category” rule, which will govern pollutant discharge limits in effluent water from gas, coal and nuclear power plants. The proposal comes as no surprise; current regulations for effluent have not been updated since 1982 and, with ongoing air pollution control equipment modifications at coal utilities creating changes in effluent waters, discharge limits are expected to become more stringent.
While it is too soon to pinpoint exactly what the proposed regulation will contain, an EPA study published in October 2009 can give some insight to the possible requirements. In that study, EPA sampled several utility sites and examined all sources of effluent discharge. They requested data on effluent discharges from many utilities and surveyed effluent treatment technologies in use today. In evaluating treatment of pollutant discharge, specifically bioaccumulative metals such as arsenic, mercury, selenium, nutrients and total dissolved solids (TDS), EPA highlighted three technologies that could markedly reduce pollutants:
- Chemical Precipitation
- Biological Metals Removal with Chemical Precipitation Pretreatment
- Lime Softening or other Chemical
These technologies all share a common denominator: they all initially remove a large portion of pollutants by pretreatment with hydrated lime. Then the effluent is polished for metals, nutrients and TDS by organosulfide addition, biological treatment or evaporation. Hydrated lime is used for pretreatment because it precipitates (either completely or to some degree) many metals* found in typical flue gas treatment streams and other species including radionuclides, fluoride and phosphates.
It also decreases biological oxygen demand (BOD).
If lime softening is employed, not only will these constituents and many metals be treated, but calcium, magnesium and sulfate will also be precipitated, producing a cleaner feedstock for downstream polishing technologies. No other technology today can precipitate as many metals and other species in one unit operation as hydrated lime pretreatment. Hydrated lime is also a remarkably efficient and cost-effective solution. In the coming months, as the EPA’s new proposal is released, you may find it very useful to take advantage of the expertise available from Carmeuse Lime and Stone. We would be happy to talk to you about your need to address FGT pollutants and show you how hydroxide precipitation can work to your advantages.
For many industrial and utilities applications, drysorbent injection (DSI) of hydrated lime offers impressive advantages over the wet or semi-wet flue gas desulfurization systems for controlling the emissions of SO2, HCl, HF, SO3 and even Hg. These advantages include ease of retrofit, dry waste and low capital investment.
Those benefits, combined with the ability to effectively and efficiently absorb most pollutants found in flue gas, make hydrated lime the leading choice for DSI. Injection of calcium reagents can occur anywhere in flue gas path from the furnace to the particulate control equipment but the optimum location depends on the target pollutant. Common injection points for DSI include the upper furnace, economizer, and the inlet or outlet of air pre-heater.
These injection points can be single injection points to focus on a particular pollutant or they can be combined to optimize the capture of multiple pollutants. The elevated temperatures of both the furnace and boiler economizer is best suited for SO2 control. The temperature of the upper furnace ranges from 1800-2200°F. At this high temperature the hydrated lime is rapidly calcined forming CaO which reacts with SO2 to form CaSO4.
The full-scale test resulted in hydrated lime bringing the customer in compliance with as little as 4.1 pounds of sorbent per pound of total acid gas by removing 98.3% of the HCl when measuring by an on-line FT-IR. In this case, hydrated lime DSI will keep the customer in compliance and offer them significant savings in terms of capital and sorbent costs.
TECHNOLOGY CENTER SERVICES
As a customer of Carmeuse you have access and support from the nation’s leading lime and limestone experts. The Carmeuse Technology Center staff has over 150 years of industry experience.
Based in Pittsburgh, PA, the Carmeuse Technology Center has chemical and physical laboratory capability to perform sophisticated studies and evaluations to assure our products are used in your applications to the most economical and sustainable ways possible.
Carmeuse maintains a staff of market specific, degreed engineers specializing in Steel, Flue Gas Treatment, Environmental and Construction markets. Our team is available to do on site visits and give technical advice on the use of our products.
In support of the Market Engineer’s work, the Technical Center also has the capability to perform testing for chemical and physical properties on products and processes using Carmeuse’s Quicklime, Hydrated Lime and Limestone products.
We are always looking for solutions which benefit the customer.
The Technology Center is an integral part of driving Carmeuse toward our goal of being the “Recognized leader in the lime and limestone industry”.
To contact us talk to your local sales representative.
Market Specific Technical Services
- Slag Chemistry
- Product Handling Studies
FLUE GAS TREATMENT
- Mass Balance Studies
- Liquid and Solid Chemical Analysis
- Limestone Reactivity
- Lime and Limestone FGT Training
- Chemical Stabilization Soil Testing
- Lime in Asphalt recommendations
- Aggregate recommendations
- Water and Wastewater Treatment Chemistry
- Lime Softening Training
- Acid Mine Drainage Recommendations
- Product Recommendations